Отделение костной патологии  
 
   

 

2002 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in Canada

(Реферат статьи)

 

CMAJ • November 12, 2002; 167 (90100) (http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/167/10_suppl/s1)

 

 

Остеопороз - важная медицинская проблема Канады и всего остального мира, значение которой постоянно растет. В Канаде каждая четвертая женщина и каждый восьмой мужчина страдает этой болезнью. Согласно даже консервативным оценкам, 50-летняя канадка имеет сорокапроцентный риск получить перелом шейки бедренной кости, позвонков или луча в типичном месте на протяжении оставшихся лет жизни.

После перелома шейки бедренной кости половина женщин даже в Канаде не могут вернуться к полноценной жизни, а 20% нуждаются в постороннем уходе. Только прямые расходы на лечение, реабилитацию и социальную помощь таким пациентам составляют ежегодно миллиарды долларов.

С учетом важности проблемы Канадская ассоциация по остеопорозу разработала в 2002 г. подробные рекомендации по диагностике и лечению этого заболевания.

Они приводятся ниже с сокращениями.

 

1. Нормальная минеральная плотность костной ткани (МПКТ) определяется между +2,5 и -1,0 SD (стандартных отклонений) по Т-критерию.

2. Остеопения соответствует интервалу МПКТ между -1,0 и -2,5 SD по Т-критерию, включительно. "Остеопения" - это также рентгенологический термин, означающий разреженность костной ткани на обычных рентгенограммах.

3. Остеопороз соответствует снижению МПКТ более чем до -2,5 SD по Т-критерию.

ВОЗ также выделяет понятие "тяжелый остеопороз" для тех пациентов, которые наряду с соответствующим снижением МПКТ имеют патологические переломы.

 

Ведущие факторы риска развития перелома при остеопорозе.

 

1.      МПКТ. Многочисленные работы и проведенный мета-анализ свидетельствуют, что снижение МПКТ на 1 стандартное отклонение увеличивает риск перелома примерно вдвое.

2.      Имевшие место ранее переломы при незначительном травматическом воздействии повышают риск новых переломов в 1,5 - 9,5 раз, в зависимости от их локализации (в первую очередь это касается переломов тел позвонков и шейки бедренной кости).

3.      Пожилой возраст. В период между 45 и 85 годами риск перелома возрастает в 8 раз для женщин и 5 раз - для мужчин.

4.      Отягощенная наследственность. Наличие перелома шейки бедренной кости у матери резко повышает риск аналогичного перелома в пожилом возрасте у ее дочери.

Кроме того, имеются многочисленные факторы риска, имеющие несколько меньшую значимость или реже встречающиеся - низкое потребление кальция с пищей, дефицит витамина Д, сниженный вес тела, гиподинамия, склонность к частым падениям, длительный прием некоторых лекарств и др.

 

Кому следует выполнять денситометрическое исследование?

 

По мнению канадских экспертов, определение МПКТ необходимо всем, кто имеет хотя бы один ведущий фактор риска и 2 дополнительных (см. таблицу № 3).

 

 

  

 

 

Наиболее проверенным и точным методом исслеования костной ткани является рентгеновская денситометрия (двухэнергетическая рентгеновская абсорбциометрия, DXA). Скрининг затруднен из-за высокой стоимости данного исследования. Однако в ряде развитых стран рекомендуют поголовное обследование всех женщин и мужчин в возрасте старше 65 лет.

Точность оценки риска переломов существенно повышается при учете, кроме степени снижения МПКТ, других ведущих и дополнительных факторов риска.

Ультразвуковая денситометрия также позволяет оценить риск переломов, однако ее значимость, особенно у лиц моложе 65 лет, ниже, чем DXA.

Определение биохимических маркеров костеобразования и резорбции позволяет в определенной степени прогнозировать течение заболевания, а также служит одним из критериев эффективности проводимого лечения.

 

Профилактика и лечение остеопороза - комплексная задача.

 

Главные задачи - увеличить прочность и массу костной ткани, снизить риск переломов, реабилитировать больных.

 

Основные фармакологические группы.

 

Бисфосфонаты.

В последние ггоды активно изучаются результаты применения новых препаратов этой группы, в первую очередь - алендроната и ризедроната.

 

Кальцитонин.

В последние годы наиболее популярен интраназальный спрей кальцитонина, более удобный в применении и не менее эффективный, чем инъекционные формы. Учитывая непосредственный обезболивающий эффект, кальцитонин является препаратом выбора при свежем переломе на фоне остеопороза.

 

Заместительная гормональная терапия.

В последние годы наибольшее внимание уделяется селективным модуляторам эстрогеновых рецепторов, не имеющим многих побочных свойств, ранее присущих препаратам этой группы, и обладающим высокой эффективностью. Наиболее известный из них - ралоксифен.

 

 

Некоторые другие препараты.

Иприфлавон. Это синтетический фитоэстроген. В настоящее время накопленных данных о его эффективности недостаточно для рекомендаций о широком использовании при остеопорозе.

Витамин К. Препарат замедлял потерю МПКТ среди женщин в постменопаузальном периоде, однако полноценных исследований, свидетельствующих о его достаточной эффективности при остеопорозе, не проводилось.

Фториды. Широко применялись в 70-е и 80-е годы. С 90-х годов препараты фтора для лечения остеопороза используются ограниченно ввиду побочных свойств и меньшей эффективностью по сравнению с другими, новыми лекарствами.

Паратиреоидный гормон. Препараты паратгормона исследовались в экспериментальных условиях на предмет лечения остеопороза и показали свою эффективность. В настоящее время одобрение к использованию получил только один препарат, терипаратид. Достаточных клинических данных о степени его эффективности и отдаленных результатах пока нет. Несмотря на это, канадские врачи рассматривают препараты паратгормона потенциально как одни из наиболее эффективных.

 

Нефармакологические меры.

 

Питание.

Достаточное потребление кальция и витамина Д рассматривается как одна из ведущих мер профилактики, а также условие эффективности лечения остеопороза.

Сниженнное потребление белков, равно как избыточное употребление газированных напитков, кофеина, значительно повышает риск возникновения переломов. Ежедневное количество соли (хлористого натрия), значительно превышающее 2 грамма, также может привести к развитию остеопороза и переломам.

Пищевые добавки, содержащие магний или медь, достоверно не влияли на частоту переломов. То же касается пищевых длобавок, содержащих бор, цинк, стронций и силикаты и др. микроэлементы.

 

Физическая активность.

Достаточная физическая активность - один из ведущих факторов достижения пиковой костной массы в процессе роста и формирования скелета у детей и подростков.

Поддержание хорошей физической формы у пожилых людей не только способствует сохранению МПКТ, но и снижает риск падений, ведущих в переломам.

Наоборот, избыточная физическая активность в любом возрасте (например, при занятиях спортом), может приводить к снижению массы костной ткани, более частым падениям и переломам.

 

Литературные источники.

 

1.         Hanley DA, Josse RG. Prevention and management of osteoporosis: consensus statements from the Scientific Advisory Board of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada: 1. Introduction. CMAJ 1996;155:921-3.[Medline]

2.         Papadimitropoulos EA, Coyte PC, Josse RG, Greenwood CE. Current and projected rates of hip fracture in Canada. CMAJ 1997;157:1357-63.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

3.         Melton LJ III, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, Lane AW, Riggs BL. Perspective: how many women have osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 1992;7:1005-10.[Medline]

4.         Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Ensrud KE, Scott JC, Black DM. Risk of mortality following clinical fractures. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:556-61.[Medline]

5.         Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Jacobsen SJ, O'Fallon WM, Melton LJ III. Population-based study of survival after osteoporotic fractures. Am J Epidemiol 1993;137:1001-5.[Abstract]

6.         Center JR, Nguyen TV, Schneider D, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA. Mortality after all major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: an observational study. Lancet 1999;353:878-82.[Medline]

7.         Chrischilles EA, Butler CD, Davis CS, Wallace RB. A model of lifetime osteoporosis impact. Arch Intern Med 1991;151:2026-32.[Abstract]

8.         Cummings SR, Black DM, Rubin SM. Lifetime risks of hip, colles', or vertebral fracture and coronary heart disease among white postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2445-8.[Abstract]

9.         Melton LJ III. Who has osteoporosis? A conflict between clinical and public health perspectives. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:2309-14.[Medline]

10.      Goeree ROB, Pettitt DB, Cuddy L, Ferraz M, Adachi J. An assessment of the burden of illness due to osteoporosis in Canada. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can 1996;18(suppl July):15-24.

11.      Osteoporosis Society of Canada. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. CMAJ 1996;155:1113-33.[Abstract]

12.      Meltzer S, Leiter L, Daneman D, Gerstein H, Lau D, Ludwig S, et al. 1998 Clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetes in Canada. CMAJ 1998;159(8 suppl):S1-29.

13.      Carruthers SG, Larochelle P, Haynes RB, Petrasovits A, Schiffrin E. Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society Consensus Conference: 1. Introduction. CMAJ 1993;149:289-93.[Medline]

14.      Greenhalgh T. Assessing the methodological quality of published papers. BMJ 1997;315:305-8.[Free Full Text]

15.      Consensus development conference: diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis. Am J Med 1993;94:646-50.[Medline]

16.      Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and therapy. NIH consensus statements 2000;17(1):1-45. [http://consensus.nih.gov/cons/111/111_intro.php]

17.      Guidelines for preclinical evaluation and clinical trials in osteoporosis. Geneva: WHO; 1998:59.

18.      Kanis JA, Melton LJ III, Christiansen C, Johnston CC, Khaltaev N. The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9:1137-41.[Medline]

19.      Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva: WHO; 1994. Tech. rep. series.

20.      Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Stone K, Fox KM, Ensrud KE, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J Med 1995;332:767-73.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

21.      Geusens P, Hochberg MC, van der Voort DJ, Pols H, Van der Klift M, Siris E, et al. Performance of risk indices for identifying low bone density in postmenopausal women. Mayo Clin Proc 2002;77:629-37.[Medline]

22.      Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ 1996;312:1254-9.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

23.      Ungar WJ, Josse R, Lee S, Ryan N, Adachi R, Hanley D, et al. The Canadian SCORE questionnaire: optimizing the use of technology for low bone density assessment. Simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimate. J Clin Densitom 2000;3:269-80.[Medline]

24.      Cadarette SM, Jaglal SB, Kreiger N, McIsaac WJ, Darlington GA, Tu JV. Development and validation of the osteoporosis risk assessment instrument to facilitate selection of women for bone densitometry. CMAJ 2000;162:1289-94.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

25.      National Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporosis: review of the evidence for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and cost-effectiveness analysis. Osteoporos Int 1998;8(suppl 4):S7-80.

26.      Cadarette SM, Jaglal SB, Murray TM, McIsaac WJ, Joseph L, Brown JP. Evaluation of decision rules for referring women for bone densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. JAMA 2001;286:57-63.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

27.      Wasnich RD, Davis JW, Ross PD. Spine fracture risk is predicted by non-spine fractures. Osteoporos Int 1994;4:1-5.

28.      Davis JW, Grove JS, Wasnich RD, Ross PD. Spatial relationships between prevalent and incident spine fractures. Bone 1999;24:261-4.[Medline]

29.      Ismail AA, Cockerill W, Cooper C, Finn JD, Abendroth K, Parisi G, et al. Prevalent vertebral deformity predicts incident hip though not distal forearm fracture: results from the European prospective osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2001;12:85-90.[Medline]

30.      Klotzbuecher CM, Ross PD, Landsman P, Abbott TAI, Berger M. Patients with prior fractures have an increased risk of future fractures: a summary of the literature and statistical synthesis. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:721-39.[Medline]

31.      Ross PD, Davis JW, Epstein RS, Wasnich RD. Pre-existing fractures and bone mass predict vertebral fracture incidence in women. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:919-23.[Medline]

32.      Tromp AM, Smit JH, Deeg DJH, Bouter LM, Lips P. Predictors for falls and fractures in the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1932-9.[Medline]

33.      Black DM, Palermo L, Nevitt MC, Genant HK, Christensen L, Cummings SR. Defining incident vertebral deformity: a prospective comparison of several approaches. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:90-101.[Medline]

34.      Fox KM, Cummings SR, Williams E, Stone K, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Femoral neck and intertrochanteric fractures have different risk factors, a prospective study. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:1018-23.[Medline]

35.      Ettinger B, Black DM, Mitlak BH, Knickerbocker RK, Nickelsen T, Genant HK, et al. Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: Results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. JAMA 1999;282:637-45.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

36.      Black DM, Arden NK, Palarmo L, Pearson J, Cummings SR. Prevalent vertebral deformities predict hip fractures and new vertebral deformities but not wrist fractures. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:821-8.[Medline]

37.      Lindsay R, Silverman SL, Cooper C, Hanley DA, Barton I, Broy SB. Risk of new vertebral fracture in the year following a fracture. JAMA 2001; 285(3): 320-3.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

38.      McClung MR, Geusens P, Miller PD, Zippel H, Bensen W, Roux C, et al. Effects of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. N Engl J Med 2001;344:333-40.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

39.      Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, Cauley JA, Genant HK, et al. Appendicular bone density and age predict hip fracture in women. JAMA 1990;263:665-8.[Abstract]

40.      Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Dawson A, De Laet C, Jonsson B. Ten year probabilities of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD and diagnostic thresholds. Osteoporos Int 2001;12:989-95.[Medline]

41.      Torgerson DJ, Campbell MK, Thomas RE, Reid DM. Prediction of perimenopausal fractures by bone mineral density and other risk factors. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:293-7.[Medline]

42.      Patel MS, Rubin LA, Cole DEC. Genetic determinants of osteoporosis. In Hendreson JE, Goltzman D (editors). The osteoporosis primer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2000:131-46.

43.      Nyquist F, Gardsell P, Sernbo I, Jeppsson JO, Johnell O. Assessment of sex hormones and bone mineral density in relation to occurrence of fracture in men: a prospective population-based study. Bone 1998;22:147-51.[Medline]

44.      Mussolino ME, Looker AC, Madans JH, Langlois JA, Orwoll ES. Risk factors for hip fracture in white men: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:918-24.[Medline]

45.      Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Kelly PJ, Sambrook PN. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:255-63.[Abstract]

46.      Dargent-Molina P, Favier F, Grandjean H, Baudoin C, Schott AM, Hausherr E, et al. Fall-related factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS prospective study [published erratum appears in Lancet 1996;348:416]. Lancet 1996;348:145-9.

47.      Dargent-Molina P, Schott AM, Hans D, Favier F, Grandjean H, Baudoin C, et al. Separate and combined value of bone mass and gait speed measurements in screening for hip fracture risk: results from the EPIDOS study. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:188-92.[Medline]

48.      Adachi JD, Olszynski WP, Hanley DA, Hodsman AB, Kendler DL, Siminoski KG. Management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2000;29:228-51.[Medline]

49.      Van Staa TP, Leufkens HG, Abenhaim L, Zhang B, Cooper C. Use of oral corticosteroids and risk of fractures. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:993-1000.[Medline]

50.      Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, Cooper C, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL. Vertebral fractures predict subsequent fractures. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:214-21.[Medline]

51.      Faulkner K, Abbott TA, Furman WD, Panish J, Siris E, Miller P. Fracture risk assessment in NORA is comparable across peripheral sites. J Bone Miner Res 2001;16(suppl 1):S144.

52.      Njeh CF, Hans D, Li J, Fan B, Fuerst T, He YQ, et al. Comparison of six calcaneal quantitative ultrasound devices: precision and hip fractures. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:1051-62.[Medline]

53.      Woodhouse A, Black DM. BMD at various sites for the prediction of hip fractures: a meta analysis. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15(suppl 1):S145.

54.      Genant HK, Grampp S, Gluer CC, Faulkner KG, Jergas M, Engelke K, et al. Universal standardisation for dual X-ray absorptiometry: patient and phantom cross-calibration results. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9:1503-14.[Medline]

55.      Hui SL, Gao S, Zhou XH, Johnston CC, Lu Y, Gluer CC, et al. Universal standardization of bone density measurements: a method with optimal properties for calibration among several instruments. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1463-70.[Medline]

56.      Rosenthall L, Caminis J, Tenehouse A. Calcaneal ultrasonometry: response to treatment in comparison with dual x-ray absorptiometry measurements of the lumbar spine and femur. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;64:200-4.[Medline]

57.      Gardsell P, Johnell O, Nilsson BE. The predictive value of forearm bone mineral content measurements in men. Bone 1990;11:229-32.[Medline]

58.      Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud KE, et al. Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 1993;341:72-5.[Medline]

59.      Ross P, Huang C, Davis J, Imose K, Yates J, Vogel J, et al. Predicting vertebral deformity using bone densitometry at various skeletal sites and calcaneus ultrasound. Bone 1995;16:325-32.[Medline]

60.      Bauer DC, Gluer CC, Cauley JA, Vogt TM, Ensrud KE, Genant HK, et al. Broadband ultrasound attenuation predicts fractures strongly and independently of densitometry in older women. A prospective study. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:629-34.[Abstract]

61.      Hans D, Dargent-Molina P, Schott AM, Sebert JL, Cormier C, Kotzki PO, et al. Ultrasonographic heel measurements to predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS prospective study. Lancet 1996;348:511-4.[Medline]

62.      Adami S, Zamberlan N, Gatti D, Zanfisi C, Braga V, Broggini M, et al. Computed radiographic absorptiometry and morphometry in the assessment of postmenopausal bone loss. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:8-13.[Medline]

63.      Wishart JM, Horowitz M, Bochner M, Need AG, Nordin BEC. Relationships between metacarpal morphometry, forearm and vertebral bone density and fractures in postmenopausal women. Br J Radiol 1993;66:435-40.[Abstract]

64.      Ravn P, Overgaard K, Huang C, Ross PD, Green D, McClung M, et al. Comparison of bone densitometry of the phalanges, distal forearm and axial skeleton in early postmenopausal women participating in the EPIC study. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:308-13.[Medline]

65.      Riggs BL, Melton LJ III. Bone turnover matters: the raloxifene treatment paradox of dramatic decreases in vertebral fractures without commensurate increases in bone density. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:11-4.[Medline]

66.      Gluer CC, Wu CY, Genant HK. Broadband ultrasound attenuation signals depend on trabecular orientation: an in-vitro study. Osteoporos Int 1993;3:185-91.[Medline]

67.      Faulkner KG, McClung MR. Quality control of DXA instruments in multicenter trials. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:218-27.[Medline]

68.      Blunt BA. DXA technologists: educate yourselves. Radiol Technol 1998;70:223-4.

69.      Kolta S, Ravaud P, Fechtenbaum J, Dougados M, Roux C. Follow-up of individual patients on two DXA scanners of the same manufacturer. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:709-13.[Medline]

70.      Ravaud P, Reny JL, Giraudeau B, Porcher R, Dougados M, Roux C. Individual smallest detectable difference in bone mineral density measurements. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1449-56.[Medline]

71.      Sievanen H, Oja P, Vuori I. Precision of dual energy x-ray absortiometry in determining bone mineral density and content of various skeletal sites. J Nucl Med 1992;33:1137-42.[Abstract]

72.      Wahner HW, Looker A, Dunn WL, Walters LC, Hauser MF, Novak C. Quality control of bone densitometry in a national health survey (NHANES III) using three mobile examination centers. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9:951-60.[Medline]

73.      Gluer CC, Blake G, Blunt BA, Jergas M, Genant HK. Accurate assessment of precision errors: how to measure the reproducibility of bone densitometry techniques. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:262-70.[Medline]

74.      Gluer C. Monitoring skeletal changes by radiological techniques. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1952-62.[Medline]

75.      Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Connor MK, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL. Bone density and fracture risk in men. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1915-23.[Medline]

76.      de Laet CE, Van Hout BA, Burger H, Weel AE, Hofman A, Pols HAP. Hip fracture prediction in elderly men and women: validation in the Rotterdam study. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1587-93.[Medline]

77.      Cheng S, Suominen H, Sakari-Rantala R, Laukkanen P, Avikainen V, Heikkinen E. Calcaneal bone mineral density predicts fracture occurrence: a five-year follow-up study in elderly people. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1075-82.[Medline]

78.      Gilsanz V, Boechat MI, Gilsanz R, Loro ML, Roe TF, Goodman WG. Gender differences in vertebral sizes in adults: biomechanical implications. Radiology 1994;190:678-82.[Abstract]

79.      Seeman E. From density to structure: growing up and growing old on the surfaces of bone. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:509-21.[Medline]

80.      Kanis JA, Gluer CC. An update on the diagnosis and assessment of osteoporosis with densitometry. Osteoporos Int 2000; 11:192-202.[Medline]

81.      Van der Klift M, de Laet CE, McCloskey EV, Hofman A, Pols HA. The incidence of vertebral fractures in men and women: the Rotterdam study. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:1051-6.[Medline]

82.      Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, et al. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1761-8.[Medline]

83.      Clemmesen B, Ravn P, Zegels B, Taquet AN, Christiansen C, Reginster JY. A 2-year phase II study with 1-year of follow-up of risedronate (NE-58095) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:488-95.[Medline]

84.      Chesnut CH III, McClung M, Ensrud KE, Bell N, Genant H, Harris S. Alendronate treatment of the postmenopausal osteoporotic woman: effect of multiple dosages on bone mass and bone remodeling. Am J Med 1995;99:144-52.[Medline]

85.      Liberman UA, Weiss SR, Broll J, Minne HW, Quan H, Bell NH, et al. Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1437-43.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

86.      Devogelaer JP, Broll H, Correa-Rotter R, Cumming DC, De Deuxchaisnes DC, Geusens P, et al. Oral alendronate induces progressive increases in bone mass of the spine, hip, and total body over three years in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Bone 1996;18:141-50.[Medline]

87.      Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Duboeuf F, Delmas PD. Markers of bone turnover predict postmenopausal forearm bone loss over 4 years: the OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1614-21.[Medline]

88.      Chesnut CH III, Bell NH, Clark GS, Drinkwater BL, English SC, Johnston CC Jr, et al. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen monitors therapeutic effect and predicts response of bone mineral density. Am J Med 1997;102:29-37.[Medline]

89.      Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Chapuy MC, Delmas PD. Increased bone turnover in late postmenopausal women is a major determinant of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:337-49.[Medline]

90.      Garnero P, Dargent-Molina P, Hans D, Schott AM, Bréart G, Meunier PJ, et al. Do markers of bone resorption add to bone mineral density and ultrasonographic heel measurement for the prediction of hip fracture in elderly women? Osteoporos Int 1998;8:563-9.[Medline]

91.      Rogers A, Hannon RA, Eastell R. Biochemical markers as predictors of rates of bone loss after menopause. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:1398-404.[Medline]

92.      Rosen CJ, Chesnut CH III, Mallinak NJS. The predictive value of biochemical markers of bone turnover for bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement or calcium Supplementation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:1904-10.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

93.      Keen RW, Nguyen T, Sobnack R, Perry LA, Thompson PW, Spector TD. Can biochemical markers predict bone loss at the hip and spine?: a 4-year prospective study of 141 early postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:399-406.[Medline]

94.      Szulc P, Arlot M, Chapuy MC, Duboeuf F, Meunier PJ, Delmas PD. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin correlates with hip bone mineral density in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9:1591-5.[Medline]

95.      Eastell R, Robins SP, Colwell T, Assiri AMA, Riggs BL, Russell RGG. Evaluation of bone turnover in type I osteoporosis using biochemical markers specific for both bone formation and bone resorption. Osteoporos Int 1993;3:255-60.[Medline]

96.      Garnero P, Hausherr E, Chapuy MC, Marcelli C, Grandjean H, Muller C, et al. Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS Prospective Study. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:1531-8.[Medline]

97.      Looker AC, Bauer DC, Chesnut CH III, Gundberg M, Hochberg MC, Klee G, et al. Clinical use of biochemical markers of bone remodeling: current status and future directions. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:467-80.[Medline]

98.      Kress BC, Mizrahi IA, Armour KW, Marcus R, Emkey RD, Santora AC. Use of bone alkaline phosphatase to monitor alendronate therapy in individual postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Clin Chem 1999;45:1009-17.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

99.      Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Garnero P, Chines A, Pack S, et al. Antifracture efficacy of risedronate: prediction by change in bone resorption markers. J Bone Miner Res 2001;16 suppl:S163.

100.  Khosla S, Melton LJ III, Atkinson EJ, O'Fallon WM, Klee GG, Riggs BL. Relationship of serum sex steroid levels and bone turnover markers with bone mineral density in men and women: a key role for bioavailable estrogen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2266-74.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

101.  Fleisch HA. Bisphosphonates: preclinical aspects and use in osteoporosis. Ann Med 1997;29:55-62.[Medline]

102.  Russell RG, Rogers MJ. Bisphosphonates: from the laboratory to the clinic and back again. Bone 1999;25:97-106.[Medline]

103.  Evans RA, Somers NM, Dunstan CR, Royle H, Kos S. The effect of low-dose cyclical etidronate and calcium on bone mass in early postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1993;3:71-5.[Medline]

104.  Guanabens N, Farrerons J, Perez-Edo L, Monegal A, Renau A, Carbonell J. Cyclical etidronate versus sodium fluoride in established postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized 3-year trial. Bone 2000;27:123-8.[Medline]

105.  Gurlek A, Bayraktar M, Gedik O. Comparison of calcitriol treatment with etidronate-calcitriol and calcitonin-calcitriol combinations in Turkish women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a prospective study. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61:39-43.[Medline]

106.  Harris ST, Watts NB, Jackson RD, Genant HK, Wasnich RD, Ross P. Four-year study of intermittent cyclic etidronate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: three years of blinded therapy followed by one year of open therapy. Am J Med 1993;95:557-67.[Medline]

107.  Heath DA, Bullivant BG, Boiven C, Balena R. The effects of cyclical etidronate on early postmenopausal bone loss: An open, randomized controlled study. J Clin Densitometry 2000;3:27-33.

108.  Herd RJ, Balena R, Blake GM, Ryan PJ, Fogelman I. The prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss by cyclical etidronate therapy: a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Med 1997;103:92-9.[Medline]

109.  Meunier PJ, Confavreux E, Tupinon I, Hardouin C, Delmas PD, Balena R. Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss with cyclical etidronate therapy (a double-blind placebo-controlled study and 1-year follow-up). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2784-91.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

110.  Mukherjee T, Barad D, Turk R, Freeman R. A randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effect of cyclic intermittent etidronate therapy on the bone mineral density changes associated with six months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:105-9.[Medline]

111.  Storm T, Thamsborg G, Steiniche T, Genant HK, Sorensen OH. Effect of intermittent cyclical etidronate therapy on bone mass and fracture rate in women postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1265-71.[Abstract]

112.  Surrey ES, Voigt B, Fournet N, Judd HL. Prolonged gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment of symptomatic endometriosis: the role of cyclic sodium etidronate and low-dose norethindrone "add-back" therapy. Fertil Steril 1995;63:747-55.[Medline]

113.  Watts NB, Harris ST, Genant HK, Wasnich RD, Miller PD, Jackson RD, et al. Intermittent cyclical etidronate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1990;323:73-9.[Abstract]

114.  Schnitzer T, Bone HG, Crepaldi G, Adami S, McClung M, Kiel D, et al. Therapeutic equivalence of alendronate 70 mg once-weekly and alendronate 10 mg daily in the treatment of osteoporosis. Aging (Milano) 2000;12:1-12.

115.  Liberman UI, Hirsch LJ. Esophagitis and alendronate. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1069-70.[Free Full Text]

116.  Adami S, Passeri M, Ortolani S, Broggini M, Carratelli L, Caruso I, et al. Effects of oral alendronate and intranasal salmon calcitonin on bone mass and biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Bone 1995;17:383-90.[Medline]

117.  Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Nevitt MC, et al. Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Lancet 1996;348:1535-41.[Medline]

118.  Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, Applegate WB, Barrett-Connor EL, Musliner TA, et al. Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial. JAMA 1998;280:2077-82.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

119.  Downs RW Jr, Bell NH, Ettinger MP, Walsh BW, Favus MJ, Mako B, et al. Comparison of alendronate and intranasal calcitonin for treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1783-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

120.  Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Pondrelli C, Martini S, Montagnani A, Monaco R, et al. Bone turnover and the response to alendronate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;65:359-64.[Medline]

121.  Bone HG, Greenspan SL, McKeever C, Bell N, Davidson M, Downs RW, et al. Alendronate and estrogen effects in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Alendronate/Estrogen Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:720-6.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

122.  Greenspan SL, Parker RA, Ferguson L, Rosen HN, Maitland-Ramsey L, Karpf DB. Early changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover predict the long-term response to alendronate therapy in representative elderly women: a randomized clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1431-8.[Medline]

123.  Hosking D, Chilvers CED, Christiansen C, Ravn P, Wasnich R, Ross P, et al. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. N Engl J Med 1998;338:485-92.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

124.  Lindsay R, Cosman F, Lobo RA, Walsh BW, Harris ST, Reagan JE, et al. Addition of alendronate to ongoing hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3076-81.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

125.  McClung M, Clemmesen B, Daifotis A. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:253-61.[Medline]

126.  Pivonello R, Faggiano A, Di Somma C, Klain M, Filippella M, Salvatore M, et al. Effect of a short-term treatment with alendronate on bone density and bone markers in patients with central diabetes insipidus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2349-52.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

127.  Pols HAP, Felsenberg D, Hanley DA, Stepan J, Munoz-Torres M, Wilkin TJ, et al. A multinational, placebo-controlled, randomized study of the effects of alendronate on bone density and fracture risk in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: Results of the FOSIT Study. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:461-8.[Medline]

128.  Ravn P, Bidstrup M, Wasnich RD, Davis JW, McClung MR, Balske A, et al. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss: Four-year results from the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study: A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:935-42.[Medline]

129.  Schneider PF, Fischer M, Allolio B, Felsenberg D, Schroder U, Semler J, et al. Alendronate increases bone density and bone strength at the distal radius in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1387-93.[Medline]

130.  Shiraki M, Kushida K, Fukunaga M, Kishimoto H, Kaneda K, Minaguchi H, et al. A placebo-controlled, single-blind study to determine the appropriate alendronate dosage in postmenopausal Japanese patients with osteoporosis. Endocr J 1998;45:191-201.[Medline]

131.  Shiraki M, Kushida K, Fukunaga M, Kishimoto H, Taga M, Nakamura T, et al. A double-masked multicenter comparative study between alendronate and alfacalcidol in Japanese patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:183-92.[Medline]

132.  Tucci JR, Tonino RP, Emkey RD, Peverly CA, Kher U, Santora AC. Effect of three years of oral alendronate treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Am J Med 1996;101:488-501.[Medline]

133.  Black DM, Thompson DE, Bauer DC, Ensrud K, Musliner T, Hochberg MC. Fracture risk reduction with alendronate in women with osteoporosis: the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT) Research Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:118-24.

134.  Delmas PD, Balena R, Confravreux E, Hardouin C, Hardy P, Bremond A. Bisphosphonate risedronate prevents bone loss in women with artificial menopause due to chemotherapy of breast cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Oncol1997;15:955-62.[Abstract]

135.  Fogelman I, Ribot C, Smith R, Ethgen D, Sod E, Reginster JY. Risedronate reverses bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: results from a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMD-MN Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1895-900.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

136.  Harris ST, Watts NB, Genant HK, McKeever CD, Hangartner T, Keller M, et al. Effects of risedronate treatment on vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. Vertebral Efficacy With Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. JAMA 1999;282:1344-52.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

137.  Reginster JY, Minne HW, Sorensen OH, Hooper M, Roux C, Brandi ML, et al. Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 2000; 11:83-91.[Medline]

138.  Brown JP, Kendler DL, McClung MR, Emkey RD, Adachi JD, Bolognese MA, et al. The efficacy and tolerability of risedronate once a week for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 2002;71:103-11.[Medline]

139.  Hodsman AB, Hanley DA, Josse R. Do bisphosphonates reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures? An evaluation of the evidence to date. CMAJ 2002;166:1426-30.[Free Full Text]

140.  Wimalawansa SJ. Combined therapy with estrogen and etidronate has an additive effect on bone mineral density in the hip and vertebrae: four-year randomized study. Am J Med 1995;99:36-42.[Medline]

141.  Wimalawansa SJ. A four-year randomized controlled trial of hormone replacement and bisphosphonate, alone or in combination, in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Am J Med 1998;104:219-26.[Medline]

142.  Orwoll E, Ettinger M, Weiss S, Miller P, Kendler D, Graham J, et al. Alendronate for the treatment of osteoporosis in men. N Engl J Med 2000;343: 604-10.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

143.  Reid DM, Adami S, Devogelaer JP, Chines AA. Risedronate increases bone density and reduces vertebral fracture risk within one year in men on corticosteroid therapy. Calcif Tissue Int 2001;69:242-7.[Medline]

144.  Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Brown J, Hanley D, Hodsman A, Josse R, et al. Intermittent etidronate therapy to prevent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1997;337:382-7.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

145.  Cortet B, Hachulla E, Barton I, Bonvoisin B, Roux C. Evaluation of the efficacy of etidronate therapy in preventing glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases: A randomized study. Rev Rhum Engl Ed 1999;66:214-9.[Medline]

146.  Geusens P, Dequeker J, Vanhoof J, Stalmans R, Boonen S, Joly J, et al. Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:724-7.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

147.  Jenkins EA, Walker-Bone KE, Wood A, McCrae FC, Cooper C, Cawley MID. The prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss with intermittent cyclical etidronate. Scand J Rheumatol 1999;28:152-6.[Medline]

148.  Lems WF, Jacobs JW, Bijlsma JW, van Veen GJ, Houben HH, Haanen HC, et al. Is addition of sodium fluoride to cyclical etidronate beneficial in the treatment of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis? Ann Rheum Dis 1997;56:357-63.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

149.  Mulder H, Struys A. Intermittent cyclical etidronate in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss. Br J Rheumatol 1994;33:348-50.[Medline]

150.  Pitt P, Li F, Todd P, Webber D, Pack S, Moniz C. A double blind placebo controlled study to determine the effects of intermittent cyclical etidronate on bone mineral density in patients on long-term oral corticosteroid treatment. Thorax 1998;53:351-6.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

151.  Roux C, Oriente P, Laan R, Hughes RA, Ittner J, Goemaere S, et al. Randomized trial of effect of cyclical etidronate in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced bone loss. Ciblos Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1128-33.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

152.  Skingle SJ, Crisp AJ. Increased bone density in patients on steroids with etidronate. Lancet 1994;344:543-4.

153.  Struys A, Snelder AA, Mulder H. Cyclical etidronate reverses bone loss of the spine and proximal femur in patients with established corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Am J Med 1995;99:235-42.[Medline]

154.  Wolfhagen FH, van Buuren HR, den Ouden JW, Hop WC, van Leeuwen JP, Schalm SW, et al. Cyclical etidronate in the prevention of bone loss in corticosteroid-treated primary biliary cirrhosis. A prospective, controlled pilot study. J Hepatol 1997;26:325-30.[Medline]

155.  Worth H, Stammen D, Keck E. Therapy of steroid-induced bone loss in adult asthmatics with calcium, vitamin D, and a diphosphonate. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 1994;150:394-7.[Abstract]

156.  Brown JP, Olszynski W, Hodsman A, Bensen W, Tenenhouse A, Anastassiades T, et al. The positive effect of etidronate therapy is maintained after the drug is terminated in patients who are using corticosteroids. J Clin Densitometry 2001; 4(4):363-71.

157.  Gonnelli S, Rottoli P, Cepollaro C, Pondrelli C, Cappiello V, Vagliasindi M, et al. Prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis with alendronate in sarcoid patients. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61:382-5.[Medline]

158.  Saag KG, Emkey R, Schnitzer TJ, Brown JP, Hawkins F, Goemaere S, et al. Alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Intervention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339:292-9.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

159.  Adachi JD, Saag KG, Delmas PD, Liberman UA, Emkey RD, Seeman E. Two-year effects of alendronate on bone mineral density and vertebral fracture in patients receiving glucocorticoids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension trial. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:202-11.[Medline]

160.  Di Somma C, Colao A, Pivonello R, Klain M, Faggiano A, Tripodi FS, et al. Effectiveness of chronic treatment with alendronate in the osteoporosis of Cushing's disease. Clin Endocrinol 1998;48:655-62.[Medline]

161.  Cohen S, Levy RM, Keller M, Boling E, Emkey RD, Greenwald M, et al. Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: a twelve-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:2309-18.[Medline]

162.  Reid DM, Hughes RA, Laan RF, Sacco-Gibson NA, Wenderoth DH, Adami S. Efficacy and safety of daily risedronate in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in men and women: a randomized trial. European Cortciosteroid-Induced Osteoporosis Treatment Study. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15: 1006-13.[Medline]

163.  Wallach S, Cohen S, Reid DM, Hughes RA, Hosking DJ, Laan RF. Effects of risedronate treatment on bone density and vertebral fracture in patients on corticosteroid therapy. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;67:277-85.[Medline]

164.  Anderson FH, Francis RM, Bishop JC, Rawlings DJ. Effect of intermittent cyclical disodium etidronate therapy on bone mineral density in men with vertebral fractures. Age Ageing 1997;26:359-65.

165.  Repchinsky C (editor). Compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. 36. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2001:236-7.

166.  Repchinsky C (editor). Compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. 36. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2001:244-5.

167.  Repchinsky C (editor). Compendium of pharmaceuticals and specialties. 36. Ottawa: Canadian Pharmacists Association 2001:924-6.

168.  Chesnut CH III, Silverman S, Andriano K, Genant HK, Gimona A, Harris S. A randomized trial of nasal spray salmon calcitonin in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis: the Prevent Recurrence of Osteoporotic Fractures Study. Am J Med 2000;109:267-76.[Medline]

169.  Gonnelli S, Cepollaro C, Pondrelli C, Martini S, Rossi S, Gennari C. Ultrasound parameters in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin: a longitudinal study. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:303-7.[Medline]

170.  Reginster JY, Meurmans L, Deroisy R, Jupsin I, Biquet I, Albert A, et al. A 5-year controlled randomized study of prevention of postmenopausal trabecular bone loss with nasal salmon calcitonin and calcium. Eur J Clin Invest 1994; 24:565-9.[Medline]

171.  Kapetanos G, Symeonides PP, Dimitriou C, Karakatsanis K, Potoupnis M. A double blind study of intranasal calcitonin for established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1997;275:108-11.[Medline]

172.  Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Lecart MP, Sarlet N, Zegels B, Jupsin I, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding trial of intermittent nasal salmon calcitonin for prevention of postmenopausal lumbar spine bone loss. Am J Med 1995;98:452-8.[Medline]

173.  Overgaard K, Riis BJ, Christiansen C, Hansen MA. Effect of salcatonin given intranasally on early postmenopausal bone loss. BMJ 1989;299:477-9.[Medline]

174.  Overgaard K, Hansen MA, Jensen SB, Christiansen C. Effect of salcatonin given intranasally on bone mass and fracture rates in established osteoporosis: a dose-response study. BMJ 1992;305:556-61.[Medline]

175.  Rico H, Hernandez ER, Revilla M, Gomez-Castresana F. Salmon calcitonin reduces vertebral fracture rate in postmenopausal crush fracture syndrome. Bone Miner 1992;16:131-8.[Medline]

176.  Thamsborg G, Jensen JE, Kollerup G, Hauge EM, Melsen F, Sorensen OH. Effect of nasal salmon calcitonin on bone remodeling and bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 1996;18:207-12.[Medline]

177.  Gennari C, Agnusdei D, Montagnani M, Gonnelli S, Civitelli R. An effective regimen of intranasal salmon calcitonin in early postmenopausal bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 1992;50:381-3.[Medline]

178.  Thamsborg G, Storm TL, Sykulski R, Brinch E, Nielsen HK, Sorensen OH. Effect of different doses of nasal salmon calcitonin on bone mass. Calcif Tissue Int 1991;48:302-7.[Medline]

179.  Rico H, Revilla M, Hernandez ER, Villa LF, Alvarez de Buergo M. Total and regional bone mineral content and fracture rate in postmenopausal osteoporosis treated with salmon calcitonin: a prospective study. Calcif Tissue Int 1995;56:181-5.[Medline]

180.  Overgaard K. Effect of intranasal salmon calcitonin therapy on bone mass and bone turnover in early postmenopausal women: a dose-response study. Calcif Tissue Int 1994;55:82-6.[Medline]

181.  Lyritis GP, Magiasis B, Tsakalakos N. Prevention of bone loss in early nonsurgical and nonosteoporotic high turnover patients with salmon calcitonin: the role of biochemical bone markers in monitoring high turnover patients under calcitonin treatment. Calcif Tissue Int 1995;56:38-41.[Medline]

182.  Ellerington MC, Hillard TC, Whitcroft SI, Marsh MS, Lees B, Banks LM, et al. Intranasal salmon calcitonin for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 1996;59:6-11.[Medline]

183.  Overgaard K, Riis BJ, Christiansen C, Podenphant J, Johansen JS. Nasal calcitonin for treatment of established osteoporosis. Clin Endocrinol 1989;30: 435-42.[Medline]

184.  Reginster JY, Denis D, Deroisy R, Lecart MP, de Longueville M, Zegels B, et al. Long-term (3 years) prevention of trabecular postmenopausal bone loss with low-dose intermittent nasal salmon calcitonin. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9: 69-73.[Medline]

185.  Reginster JY, Denis D, Albert A, Deroisy R, Lecart MP, Fontaine MA, et al. 1-Year controlled randomised trial of prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss by intranasal calcitonin. Lancet 1987;2:1481-3.[Medline]

186.  Fioretti P, Gambacciani M, Taponeco F, Melis GB, Capelli N, Spinetti A. Effects of continuous and cyclic nasal calcitonin administration in ovariectomized women. Maturitas 1992;15:225-32.[Medline]

187.  Grigoriou O, Papoulias I, Vitoratos N, Papadias C, Konidaris S, Antoniou G, et al. Effects of nasal administration of calcitonin in oophorectomized women: 2-year controlled double-blind study. Maturitas 1997;28:147-51.[Medline]

188.  Mango D, Ricci S, Manna P, Natili G, Dell'Acqua S. Preventive treatment of cortical bone loss with salmon nasal calcitonin in early postmenopausal women. Minerva Endocrinol 1993;18:115-21.[Medline]

189.  Flicker L, Hopper JL, Larkins RG, Lichtenstein M, Buirski G, Wark JD. Nandrolone decanoate and intranasal calcitonin as therapy in established osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:29-35.[Medline]

190.  Hizmetli S, Elden H, Kaptanoglu E, Nacitarhan V, Kocagil S. The effect of different doses of calcitonin on bone mineral density and fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Int J Clin Pract 1998;52:453-5.[Medline]

191.  Arnala I, Saastamoinen J, Alhava EM. Salmon calcitonin in the prevention of bone loss at perimenopause. Bone 1996;18:629-32.[Medline]

192.  Luengo M, Picado C, Del Rio L, Guanabens N, Montserrat JM, Setoain J. Treatment of steroid-induced osteopenia with calcitonin in corticosteroid-dependent asthma. A one-year follow-up study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142: 104-7.[Medline]

193.  Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bell MJ, Bianchi FA, Cividino AA, Craig GL, et al. Salmon calcitonin nasal spray in the prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Br J Rheumatol 1997;36:255-9.[Medline]

194.  Healey JH, Paget SA, Williams-Russo P, Szatrowski TP, Schneider R, Spiera H, et al. A randomized controlled trial of salmon calcitonin to prevent bone loss in corticosteroid-treated temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Calcif Tissue Int 1996;58:73-80.[Medline]

195.  Ringe JD, Welzel D. Salmon calcitonin in the therapy of corticoid-induced osteoporosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1987;33:35-9.[Medline]

196.  Kotaniemi A, Piirainen H, Paimela L, Leirisalo-Repo M, Uoti-Reilama K, Lahdentausta P, et al. Is continuous intranasal salmon calcitonin effective in treating axial bone loss in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis receiving low dose glucocorticoid therapy? J Rheumatol 1996;23:1875-9.[Medline]

197.  Luengo M, Pons F, Martinez de Osaba MJ, Picado C. Prevention of further bone mass loss by nasal calcitonin in patients on long term glucocorticoid therapy for asthma: a two year follow up study. Thorax 1994;49:1099-102.[Abstract]

198.  Grotz WH, Rump LC, Niessen A, Schmidt-Gayk H, Reichelt A, Kirste G, et al. Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 1998;66:1004-8.[Medline]

199.  Lyritis GP, Paspati I, Karachalios T, Ioakimidis D, Skarantavos G, Lyritis PG. Pain relief from nasal salmon calcitonin in osteoporotic vertebral crush fractures. A double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 1997;68:112-4.

200.  Lyritis GP, Tsakalakos N, Magiasis B, Karachalios T, Yiatzides A, Tsekoura M. Analgesic effect of salmon calcitonin in osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Calcif Tissue Int 1991;49:369-72.[Medline]

201.  Pun KK, Chan LW. Analgesic effect of intranasal salmon calcitonin in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Clin Ther 1989;11:205-9.[Medline]

202.  Lauro R, Palmier G. Effects of calcitonin on pain related to recent osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a single-blind controlled clinical study against ipriflavone. Acta Toxicol Ther 1993;14:73-83.

203.  Combe B, Cohen C, Aubin F. Equivalence of nasal spray and subcutaneous formulations of salmon calcitonin. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61:10-5.[Medline]

204.  MacLennan A, Lester S, Moore V. Oral estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo for hot flushes: a systematic review. Climacteric 2001;4:58-74.[Medline]

205.  Prior JC. Perimenopause: The complex endocrinology of the menopausal transition. Endocr Rev 1998;19:397-428.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

206.  Okano H, Mizunama H, Soda M, Kagami I, Miyamoto S, Ohsawa M, et al. The long term effect of menopause on postmenopausal bone loss in Japanese women: results from a prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:303-9.[Medline]

207.  Cummings SR, Kelsey JL, Nevitt MC, O'Dowd KJ. Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiol Rev 1985;7:178-208.[Medline]

208.  Petitti DB. Hormone replacement therapy and heart disease prevention. Experimentation trumps observation [editorial]. JAMA 1998;280:650-2.[Free Full Text]

209.  Lufkin EG, Wahner HW, O'Fallon WM, Hodgson SF, Kotowicz MA, Lane AW, et al. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with transdermal estrogen. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:1-9.[Medline]

210.  Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2002;288:321-33.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

211.  Grady D, Wenger NK, Herrington D, Khan S, Furberg C, Hunninghake D, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy increases risk for venous thromboembolic disease: the heart and estrogen/progestin replacement study. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:689-96[Medline]

212.  Persson I, Weiderpass E, Bergkvist L, Bergstrom R, Schairer C. Risks of breast and endometrial cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. Cancer Causes Control 1999;10:253-60.[Medline]

213.  Persson I, Adami HO, Bergkvist L, Lindgren A, Pettersson B, Hoover R, et al. Risk of endometrial cancer after treatment with oestrogens alone or in conjunction with progestogens: results of a prospective study. BMJ 1989;298: 147-51.[Medline]

214.  Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Endometrial cancer and patterns of use of oestrogen replacement therapy: a cohort study. Br J Cancer 1989;59:445-7.[Medline]

215.  Persson IR, Adami HO, Eklund G, Johansson ED, Lindberg BS, Lindgren A. The risk of endometrial neoplasia and treatment with estrogens and estrogen-progestogen combinations. First results of a cohort study after one to four completed years of observation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986;65:211-7.[Medline]

216.  Gambrell RD Jr. Hormones in the etiology and prevention of breast and endometrial cancer. South Med J 1984;77:1509-15.[Medline]

217.  Cooper C, Stakkestad JA, Radowicki S, Hardy P, Pilate C, Dain MP, et al. Matrix delivery transdermal 17beta-estradiol for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:358-66.[Medline]

218.  The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of hormone therapy on bone mineral density: results from the postmenopausal estrogen/progestin interventions (PEPI) trial. JAMA 1996;276:1389-96.[Abstract]

219.  Recker RR, Davies KM, Dowd RM, Heaney RP. The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:897-904.[Medline]

220.  Weiss SR, Ellman H, Dolker M, For the transdermal estradiol investigator group. A randomized controlled trial of four doses of transdermal estradiol for preventing postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:330-6.[Medline]

221.  Grese TA, Sluka JP, Bryant HU, Cullinan GJ, Glasebrook AL, Jones CD. Molecular determinants of tissue selectivity in estrogen receptor modulators. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1997;94:14105-10.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

222.  Maricic M, Adachi JD, Sarkar S, Wu W, Wong M, Harper KD. Early effects of raloxifene on clinical vertebral fractures at 12 months in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1140-3.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

223.  Eastell R, Adachi J, Harper K, Sarkar S, Delmas PD, Ensrud K. The effects of raloxifene on incident vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: 4-year results from the MORE trial [abstract]. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15(suppl 229):F418.

224.  de Valk-de Roo GW, Stehouwer CDA, Meijer P, Mijatovic V, Kluft C, Kenemans P, et al. Both raloxifene and estrogen reduce major cardiovascular risk factors in heathy postmenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2993-3000.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

225.  Barrett-Connor E, Grady D, Sashegyi A, Anderson PW, Cox A, Hoszowski K, et al. Raloxifene and cardiovascular events in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. The MORE investigators. JAMA 2002;287:847-57.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

226.  Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs BL, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1998;280:605-13.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

227.  Cauley J, Norton L, Lippman M, Eckert S, Krueger K, Purdie D, et al. Continued breast cancer risk reduction in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene: 4-year results form the MORE trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001;65:125-34.[Medline]

228.  Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA, et al. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: Results from the MORE randomized trial. JAMA 1999;281:2189-97.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

229.  Davies GC, Huster WJ, Lu Y, Plouffe L, Lakshmanan M. Adverse events reported by postmenopausal women in controlled trials with raloxifene. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:558-65.[Medline]

230.  Delmas PD, Bjarnason NH, Mitlak BH, Ravoux AC, Shah AS, Huster WJ, et al. Effects of raloxifene on bone mineral density, serum cholesterol concentrations, and uterine endometrium in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1641-7.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

231.  Walsh BW, Kuller LH, Wild RA, Paul S, Farmer M, Lawrence JB, et al. Effects of raloxifene on serum lipids and coagulation factors in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 1998;279:1445-51.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

232.  Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickherham DL, Redmond CK, Kavanah M, Cronin WM. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1371-88.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

233.  What is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)? [Note 1]. Bethesda: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://www.nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/#sup1 (viewed 24 September 2002).

234.  Scheiber MD, Rebar RW. Isoflavones and postmenopausal bone health: a viable alternative to estrogen therapy? Menopause 1999;6:233-41.[Medline]

235.  Gambacciani M, Ciaponi M, Cappagli B, Piaggesi L, Genazzani AR. Effects of combined low dose of the isoflavone derivative ipriflavone and estrogen replacement on bone mineral density and metabolism in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 1997;28:75-81.[Medline]

236.  Valente M, Bufalino L, Castiglione GN, D'Angelo R, Mancuso A, Galoppi P, et al. Effects of 1-year treatment with ipriflavone on bone in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Calcif Tissue Int 1994;54:377-80.[Medline]

237.  Gambacciani M, Spinetti A, Cappagli B, Taponeco F, Felipetto R, Parrini D, et al. Effects of ipriflavone administration on bone mass and metabolism in ovariectomized women. J Endocrinol Invest 1993;16:333-7.[Medline]

238.  Adami S, Bufalino L, Cervetti R, Di Marco C, Di Munno O, Fantasia L, et al. Ipriflavone prevents radial bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass over 2 years. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:119-25.[Medline]

239.  Kovacs AB. Efficacy of ipriflavone in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Agents Actions 1994;41:86-7.[Medline]

240.  Ushiroyama T, Okamura S, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Efficacy of ipriflavone and 1a vitamin D therapy for the cessation of vertebral bone loss. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1995;48:283-8.[Medline]

241.  Agnusdei D, Zacchei F, Bigazzi S, Cepollaro C, Nardi P, Montagnani M, et al. Metabolic and clinical effects of ipriflavone in established post-menopausal osteoporosis. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1989;15:97-104.[Medline]

242.  Nozaki M, Hashimoto K, Inoue Y, Ogata R, Okuma A, Nakano H. Treatment of bone loss in oophorectomized women with a combination of ipriflavone and conjugated equine estrogen. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1998;62:69-75.[Medline]

243.  Agnusdei D, Gennari C, Bufalino L. Prevention of early postmenopausal bone loss using low doses of conjugated estrogens and the non-hormonal, bone-active drug ipriflavone. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:462-6.[Medline]

244.  Cecchettin M, Bellometti S, Cremonesi G, Solimeno LP, Torri G. Metabolic and bone effects after administration of ipriflavone and salmon calcitonin in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Biomed Pharmacother 1995;49:465-8.[Medline]

245.  Ohta H, Komukai S, Makita K, Masuzawa T, Nozawa S. Effects of 1-year ipriflavone treatment on lumbar bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Horm Res 1999;51: 178-83.

246.  Katase K, Kato T, Hirai Y, Hasumi K, Chen JT. Effects of ipriflavone on bone loss following a bilateral ovariectomy and menopause: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Calcif Tissue Int 2001;69:73-7.[Medline]

247.  Alexandersen P, Toussaint A, Christiansen C, Devogelaer JP, Roux C, Fechtenbaum J, et al. Ipriflavone in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trail. JAMA 2001;285:1482-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

248.  Gennari C, Agnusdei D, Crepaldi G, Isaia G, Mazzuoli G, Ortolani S, et al. Effect of ipriflavone-a synthetic deriviative of natural isoflavones-on bone mass loss in the early years after menopause. Menopause 1998;5:9-15.[Medline]

249.  Agnusdei D, Crepaldi G, Isaia G, Mazzuoli G, Ortolani S, Passeri M, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal spinal bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 1997;61:142-7.[Medline]

250.  Feskanich D, Weber P, Willett WC, Rockett H, Booth SL, Colditz GA. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:74-9.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

251.  Hart JP, Catterall A, Dodds RA, Klenerman L, Shearer MJ, Bitensky L, et al. Circulating vitamin K1 levels in fractured neck of femur. Lancet 1984;2:283.[Medline]

252.  Somekawa Y, Chigughi M, Harada M, Ishibashi T. Use of vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the prevention of bone loss induced by leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2700-4.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

253.  Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi SI, Murakami M, Fujino T, Douchi T, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K-2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D-3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-4.[Medline]

254.  Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K-2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:515-21.[Medline]

255.  Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of menatetrenone on bone mineral density and incidence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a comparison with the effect of etidronate. J Orthop Sci 2001;6:487-92.[Medline]

256.  Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci 2000;5:546-51.[Medline]

257.  Rich C, Ensinck J, Ivanovich P. The effects of sodium fluoride on calcium metabolism of subjects with metabolic bone diseases. J Clin Invest 1964;43:545-56.

258.  Jowsey J, Riggs BL, Kelly PJ, Hoffman DL. Effect of combined therapy with sodium fluoride, vitamin D and calcium in osteoporosis. J Lab Clin Med 1971; 78:994-5.

259.  Harrison JE, McNeill KG, Sturtridge WC, Bayley TA, Murray TM, Williams C, et al. Three-year changes in bone mineral mass of postmenopausal osteoporotic patients based on neutron activation analysis of the central third of the skeleton. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;52:751-8.[Medline]

260.  Heaney RP, Baylink DJ, Johnston CC Jr, Melton LJ III, Meunier PJ, Murray TM, et al. Fluoride therapy for the vertebral crush fracture syndrome. A status report. Ann Intern Med 1989;111:678-80.[Medline]

261.  Gambacciani M, Spinetti A, Taponeco F, Piaggesi L, Cappagli B, Ciaponi M, et al. Treatment of postmenopausal vertebral osteopenia with monofluorophospate: a long-term calcium-controlled study. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:467-71.[Medline]

262.  Meunier PJ, Sebert JL, Reginster JY, Briancon D, Appelboom T, Netter P, et al. Fluoride salts are no better at preventing new vertebral fractures than calcium-vitamin D in postmenopausal osteoporosis: the FAVO Study. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:4-12.[Medline]

263.  Pak CY, Sakhaee K, Adams-Huet B, Piziak V, Peterson RD, Poindexter JR. Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with slow-release sodium fluoride. Final report of a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:401-8.[Medline]

264.  Reginster JY, Meurmans L, Zegels B, Rovati LC, Minne HW, Giacovelli G, et al. The effect of sodium monofluorophosphate plus calcium on vertebral fracture rate in postmenopausal women with moderate osteoporosis: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:1-8.[Medline]

265.  Riggs BL, Hodgson SF, O'Fallon WM, Chao EY, Wahner HW, Muhs JM, et al. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1990;322:802-9.[Abstract]

266.  Ringe JD, Dorst A, Kipshoven C, Rovati LC, Setnikar I. Avoidance of vertebral fractures in men with idiopathic osteoporosis by a three year therapy with calcium and low-dose intermittent monofluorophosphate. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:47-52.[Medline]

267.  Lippuner K, Haller B, Casez JP, Montandon A, Jaeger P. Effect of disodium monofluorophosphate, calcium and vitamin D Supplementation on bone mineral density in patients chronically treated with glucocorticosteroids: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1996;22:207-13.[Medline]

268.  Guaydier-Souquieres G, Kotzki PO, Sabatier JP, Basse-Cathalinat B, Loeb G. In corticosteroid-treated respiratory diseases, monofluorophosphate increases lumbar bone density: a double-masked randomized study. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:171-7.[Medline]

269.  Rizzoli R, Chevalley T, Slosman DO, Bonjour JP. Sodium monofluorophosphate increases vertebral bone mineral density in patients with corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1995;5:39-46.[Medline]

270.  Lems WF, Jacobs WG, Bijlsma JW, Croone A, Haanen HC, Houben HH, et al. Effect of sodium fluoride on the prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:575-82.[Medline]

271.  Hedlund LR, Gallagher JC. Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride. J Bone Miner Res 1989;4:223-5.[Medline]

272.  Reeve J, Meunier PJ, Parsons JA, Bernat M, Bijvoet OL, Courpron P, et al. Anabolic effect of human parathyroid hormone fragment on trabecular bone in involutional osteoporosis: a multicentre trial. Br Med J 1980;280:1340-4.[Medline]

273.  Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince R, Gaich GA, Reginster JY, et al. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1434-41.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

274.  Hodsman AB, Fraher LJ, Watson PH, Ostbye T, Stitt LW, Adachi JD, et al. A randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of cyclical parathyroid hormone versus cyclical parathyroid hormone and sequential calcitonin to improve bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:620-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

275.  Lindsay R, Nieves J, Formica C, Henneman E, Woelfert L, Shen V, et al. Randomised controlled study of effect of parathyroid hormone on vertebral-bone mass and fracture incidence among postmenopausal women on oestrogen with osteoporosis. Lancet 1997;350:550-5.[Medline]

276.  Fujita T, Inoue T, Morii H, Morita R, Norimatsu H, Orimo H, et al. Effect of an intermittent weekly dose of human parathyroid hormone (1-34) on osteoporosis: a randomized double-masked prospective study using three dose levels. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:296-306.[Medline]

277.  Slovik DM, Rosenthal DI, Doppelt SH, Potts JT Jr, Daly MA, Campbell JA, et al. Restoration of spinal bone in osteoporotic men by treatment with human parathyroid hormone (1-34) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. J Bone Miner Res 1986;1:377-81.[Medline]

278.  Kurland ES, Cosman F, McMahon DJ, Rosen CJ, Lindsay R, Bilezikian JP. Parathyroid hormone as a therapy for idiopathic osteoporosis in men: effects of bone mineral density and bone markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85:3069-70.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

279.  Orwoll E, Scheele WH, Calancy AD, Adami S, Syveren U, Diez-Perez A. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34) therapy reduces the incidence of moderate/severe vertebral fractures in men with low bone density. J Bone Miner Res 2001;16(suppl):S162.

280.  Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, Genant HK, Pierini E, Arnaud CD. Parathyroid hormone treatment can reverse corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Invest 1998;102:1627-33.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

281.  Lane NE, Sanchez S, Modin GW, Genant HK, Pierini E, Arnaud CD. Bone mass continues to increase at the hip after parathyroid hormone treatment is discontinued in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: Results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:944-51.[Medline]

282.  Baeksgaard L, Andersen KP, Hyldstrup L. Calcium and vitamin D Supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:255-60.[Medline]

283.  Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1637-42.[Abstract]

284.  Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol treatment for three years on hip fractures in elderly women. BMJ 1994;308:1081-2.[Free Full Text]

285.  Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D Supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 1997;337:670-6.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

286.  Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, Clavien H, Slosman D, Theintz G, et al. Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Invest 1997;99:1287-94.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

287.  Johnston CC Jr, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui S, Christian JC, et al. Calcium Supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med 1992;327:82-7.[Abstract]

288.  Lee WT, Leung SS, Wang SH, Xu YC, Zeng WP, Lau J, et al. Double-blind, controlled calcium Supplementation and bone mineral accretion in children accustomed to a low-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:744-50.[Abstract]

289.  Lee WT, Leung SS, Leung DM, Tsang HS, Lau J, Cheng JC. A randomized double-blind controlled calcium Supplementation trial, and bone and height acquisition in children. Br J Nutr 1995;74:125-39.[Medline]

290.  Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis JR, Demers LM, et al. Calcium Supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. JAMA 1993;270:841-4.[Abstract]

291.  Lloyd T, Martel JK, Rollings N, Andon MB, Kulin H, Demers LM, et al. The effect of calcium Supplementation and tanner stage on bone density, content and area in teenage women. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:286-3.

292.  Chan GM, Hoffman K, McMurry M. Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. J Pediatr 1995;126:551-6.[Medline]

293.  Baran D, Sorensen A, Grimes J, Lew R, Karellas A, Johnson B, et al. Dietary modification with dairy products for preventing vertebral bone loss in premenopausal women: a three-year prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70:264-70.[Abstract]

294.  Freudenheim JL, Johnson NE, Smith EL. Relationships between usual nutrient intake and bone-mineral content of women 35-65 years of age: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44:863-76.[Abstract]

295.  Rico H, Revilla M, Villa LF, Alvarez de Buergo M, Arribas I. Longitudinal study of the effect of calcium pidolate on bone mass in eugonadal women. Calcif Tissue Int 1994;54:477-80.[Medline]

296.  Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor EL, Wingard DL. Dietary calcium and risk of hip fracture: 14-year prospective population study. Lancet 1988;2:1046-9.[Medline]

297.  Lau E, Donnan S, Barker DJP, Cooper C. Physical activity and calcium intake in fracture of the proximal femur in Hong Kong. BMJ 1988;297:1441-3.[Medline]

298.  Chevalley T, Rizzoli R, Nydegger V, Slosman D, Rapin CH, Michel JP, et al. Effects of calcium Supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. Osteoporos Int 1994;4:245-52.[Medline]

299.  Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Sadowski L, Sahyoun N, Tannenbaum S. A controlled trial of the effect of calcium Supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1990;323:878-83.[Abstract]

300.  Prince R, Devine A, Dick I, Criddle A, Kerr D, Kent N, et al. The effects of calcium Supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:1068-75.[Medline]

301.  Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Gamble GD, Sharpe SJ. Effect of calcium Supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1993 Oct 21;329(17):1281]. N Engl J Med 1993;328:460-4.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

302.  Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Sharpe SJ, Gamble GD. Determinants of the rate of bone loss in normal postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;79:950-4.[Abstract]

303.  Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, Gamble GD, Sharpe SJ. Long-term effects of calcium Supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Med 1995;98:331-5.[Medline]

304.  Riggs BL, O'Fallon WM, Muhs J, O'Connor MK, Kumar R, Melton LJ III. Long-term effects of calcium Supplementation on serum parathyroid hormone level, bone turnover, and bone loss in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:168-74.[Medline]

305.  Recker RR, Hinders S, Davies KM, Heaney RP, Stegman MR, Lappe JM, et al. Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:1961-6.[Medline]

306.  Chan GM, McMurry M, Westover K, Engelbert-Fenton K, Thomas MR. Effects of increased dietary calcium intake upon the calcium and bone mineral status of lactating adolescent and adult women. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:319-23.[Abstract]

307.  Cross NA, Hillman LS, Allen SH, Krause GF. Changes in bone mineral density and markers of bone remodeling during lactation and postweaning in women consuming high amounts of calcium. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:1312-20.[Medline]

308.  Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL, Bianchi DC, Ranz J, Ho M. The effect of calcium Supplementation on bone density during lactation and after weaning. N Engl J Med 1997;337:523-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

309.  Prentice A, Jarjou LM, Cole TJ, Stirling DM, Dibba B, Fairweather-Tait S. Calcium requirements of lactating Gambian mothers: effects of a calcium Supplement on breast-milk calcium concentration, maternal bone mineral content, and urinary calcium excretion. Am J Clin Nutr1995;62:58-67.[Abstract]

310.  Trang HM, Cole DE, Rubin LA, Pierratos A, Siu S, Vieth R. Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:854-8.[Abstract]

311.  Vieth R, Cole DE, Hawker GA, Trang HM, Rubin LA. Wintertime vitamin D insufficiency is common in young Canadian women, and their vitamin D intake does not prevent it. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:1091-7.[Medline]

312.  Ala-Houhala M, Koskinen T, Koskinen M, Visakorpi JK. Double blind study on the need for vitamin D Supplementation in prepubertal children. Acta Paediatr Scand 1988;77:89-93.[Medline]

313.  Komulainen M, Tuppurainen MT, Kroger H, Heikkinen AM, Puntila E, Alhava E, et al. Vitamin D and HRT: no benefit additional to that of HRT alone in prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women. A 2.5-year randomized placebo-controlled study. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:126-32.[Medline]

314.  Dawson-Hughes B, Dallal GE, Krall EA, Harris S, Sokoll LJ, Falconer G. Effect of vitamin D Supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:505-12.[Medline]

315.  Tylavsky FA, Anderson JJB. Dietary factors in bone health of elderly lactoovovegetarians and omnivorous women. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48(3 suppl):842-9.[Abstract]

316.  Munger RG, Cerhan JR, Chiu BC. Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:147-52.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

317.  Hernandez-Avila M, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Caffeine, moderate alcohol intake and risk of fractures of the hip and forearm in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:157-63.[Abstract]

318.  Kiel DP, Felson DT, Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Wilson PW. Caffeine and the risk of hip fracture: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132:675-84.[Abstract]

319.  Devine A, Criddle RA, Dick IM, Kerr DA, Prince RL. A longitudinal study of the effect of sodium and calcium intakes on regional bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:740-5.[Abstract]

320.  Yano K, Heilbrun LK, Wasnich RD, Hankin JH, Vogel JM. The relationship between diet and bone mineral content of multiple skeletal sites in elderly Japanese-American men and women living in Hawaii. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:877-88.[Abstract]

321.  Angus RM, Sambrook PN, Pocock NA, Eisman JA. Dietary intake and bone mineral density. Bone Miner 1988;4:265-77.[Medline]

322.  Earnshaw SA, Worley A, Hosking DJ. Current diet does not relate to bone mineral density after the menopause. The Nottingham Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) Study Group. Br J Nutr 1997;78:65-72.[Medline]

323.  New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, Martin JC, Garton MJ, Bolton-Smith C, et al. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: Further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:142-51.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

324.  Conlan D, Korula R, Tallentire D. Serum copper levels in elderly patients with femoral-neck fractures. Age Ageing 1990;19:212-4.[Abstract]

325.  Elmstahl S, Gullberg B, Janzon L, Johnell O, Elmstahl B. Increased incidence of fractures in middle-aged and elderly men with low intakes of phosphorus and zinc. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:333-40.[Medline]

326.  Michaelsson K, Holmberg L, Mallmin H, Sorensen S, Wolk A, Bergstrom R, et al. Diet and hip fracture risk: A case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 1995;24:771-82.[Abstract]

327.  Petit MA, McKay HA, MacKelvie KJ, Heinonen A, Khan KM, Beck TJ. A randomized school-based jumping intervention confers site and maturity-specific benefits on bone structural properties in girls: a hip structural analysis study. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:363-72.[Medline]

328.  MacKelvie KJ, McKay HA, Petit MA, Moran O, Khan KM. Bone mineral responses to a 7-month randomized controlled, school-based jumping intervention in 121 prepubertal boys: associations with ethnicity and body mass index. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:834-44.[Medline]

329.  Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, Sullivan C, Bass S, Beck T, et al. Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: a controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1814-21.[Medline]

330.  Morris FL, Naughton GA, Gibbs JL, Carlson JS, Wark JD. Prospective ten-month exercise intervention in premenarcheal girls: Positive effects on bone and lean mass. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1453-62.[Medline]

331.  Slemenda CW, Miller JZ, Hui SL, Reister TK, Johnston CC Jr. Role of physical activity in the development of skeletal mass in children. J Bone Miner Res 1996;6:1227-33.

332.  Cassell C, Benedict M, Specker B. Bone mineral density in elite 7- to 9-yr-old female gymnasts and swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1243-6.[Medline]

333.  Courteix D, Lespessailles E, Peres SL, Obert P, Germain P, Benhamou CL. Effect of physical training on bone mineral density in prepubertal girls: a comparative study between impact-loading and non-impact-loading sports. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:152-8.[Medline]

334.  Duppe H, Gardsell P, Johnell O, Ornstein E. Bone mineral density in female junior, senior and former football players. Osteoporos Int 1996;6:437-41.[Medline]

335.  Nordstrom P, Pettersson U, Lorentzon R. Type of physical activity, muscle strength, and pubertal stage as determinants of bone mineral density and bone area in adolescent boys. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1141-8.[Medline]

336.  Slemenda CW, Johnston CC Jr. High intensity activities in young women: site specific bone mass effects among female figure skaters. Bone Miner1993;20:125-32.[Medline]

337.  Taaffe DR, Snow-Harter C, Connolly DA, Robinson TL, Brown MD, Marcus R. Differential effects of swimming versus weight-bearing activity on bone mineral status of eumenorrheic athletes. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:586-93.[Medline]

338.  Cooper C, Cawley M, Bhalla A, Egger P, Ring F, Morton L, et al. Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:940-7.[Medline]

339.  Khan KM, Liu-Ambrose T, Sran MM, Ashe MC, Donaldson MG, Wark JD. New criteria for female athlete triad syndrome? As osteoporosis is rare, should osteopenia be among the criteria for defining the female athlete triad syndrome? Br J Sports Med 2002;36:10-3.[Free Full Text]

340.  Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Kannus P, Oja P, Vuori I. Effects of unilateral strength training and detraining on bone mineral mass and estimated mechanical characteristics of the upper limb bones in young women. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:490-501.[Medline]

341.  Chilibeck PD, Calder A, Sale DG, Webber CE. Twenty weeks of weight training increases lean tissue mass but not bone mineral mass or density in healthy, active young women. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1996;74:1180-5.[Medline]

342.  Conroy BP, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM, Fleck SJ, Stone MH, Fry AC, et al. Bone mineral density in elite junior Olympic weightlifters. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1993;25:1103-9.[Medline]

343.  Karlsson MK, Johnell O, Obrant KJ. Bone mineral density in weight lifters. Calcif Tissue Int 1993;52:212-5.[Medline]

344.  Dinc H, Savci G, Demirci A, Sadikoglu MY, Tuncel E, Yavuz H. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral density in athletes. Calcif Tissue Int 1996;58:398-401.[Medline]

345.  Mayoux-Benhamou MA, Leyge JF, Roux C, Revel M. Cross-sectional study of weight-bearing activity on proximal femur bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;64:179-83.[Medline]

346.  Orwoll ES, Ferar J, Oviatt SK, McClung MR, Huntington K. The relationship of swimming exercise to bone mass in men and women. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2197-200[Abstract]

347.  Pettersson U, Nordstrom P, Lorentzon R. A comparison of bone mineral density and muscle strength in young male adults with different exercise level. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;64:490-8.[Medline]

348.  Smith R, Rutherford OM. Spine and total body bone mineral density and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1993;67:330-4.[Medline]

349.  Calbet JAL, Moysi JS, Dorado C, Rodriguez LP. Bone mineral content and density in professional tennis players. Calcif Tissue Int 1998;62:491-6.[Medline]

350.  Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Sievanen H, Oja P, Vuori I. The site-specific effects of long-term unilateral activity on bone mineral density and content. Bone 1994;15:279-84.[Medline]

351.  Kontulainen S, Kannus P, Haapasalo H, Heinonen A, Sievanen H, Oja P, et al. Changes in bone mineral content with decreased training in competitive young adult tennis players and controls: A prospective 4-yr follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:646-52.[Medline]

352.  Bilanin JE, Blanchard MS, Russek-Cohen E. Lower vertebral bone density in male long distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989;21:66-70.[Medline]

353.  Hetland ML, Haarbo J, Christiansen C. Low bone mass and high bone turnover in male long distance runners. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;77:770-5.[Abstract]

354.  MacDougall JD, Webber CE, Martin J, Ormerod S, Chesley A, Younglai EV, et al. Relationship among running mileage, bone density, and serum testosterone in male runners. J Appl Physiol 1992;73:1165-70.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

355.  Wallace BA, Cumming RG. Systematic review of randomized trials of the effect of exercise on bone mass in pre- and postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;67:10-8.[Medline]

356.  Snow-Harter C, Bouxsein ML, Lewis BT, Carter DR, Marcus R. Effects of resistance and endurance exercise on bone mineral status of young women: a randomized exercise intervention trial. J Bone Miner Res 1992;7:761-9.[Medline]

357.  Bassey EJ, Ramsdale SJ. Weight-bearing exercise and ground reaction forces: a 12-month randomized controlled trial of effects on bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. Bone 1995;16:469-76.[Medline]

358.  Bravo G, Gauthier P, Roy PM, Payette H, Gaulin P, Harvey M, et al. Impact of a 12-month exercise program on the physical and psychological health of osteopenic women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:756-62.[Medline]

359.  Brooke-Wavell K., Jones PRM, Hardman AE. Brisk walking reduces calcaneal bone loss in post-menopausal women. Clin Sci (Lond) 1997;92:75-80.

360.  Ebrahim S, Thompson PW, Baskaran V, Evans K. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of brisk walking in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age Ageing 1997;26:253-60.[Abstract]

361.  Grove KA, Londeree BR. Bone density in postmenopausal women: high impact vs low impact exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1992;24:1190-4.[Medline]

362.  Heinonen A, Oja P, Sievanen H, Pasanen M, Vuori I. Effect of two training regimens on bone mineral density in healthy perimenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:483-90.[Medline]

363.  Kohrt WM, Snead DB, Slatopolsky E, Birge SJ Jr. Additive effects of weight-bearing exercise and estrogen on bone mineral density in older women. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:1303-11.[Medline]

364.  Martin D, Notelovitz M. Effects of aerobic training on bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1993;8:931-6.[Medline]

365.  McCartney N, Hicks AL, Martin J, Webber CE. Long-term resistance training in the elderly: effects on dynamic strength, exercise capacity, muscle, and bone. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1995;50:B97-104.

366.  Thompson JL, Gylfadottir UK, Moynihan S, Jensen CD, Butterfield GE. Effects of diet and exercise on energy expenditure in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:867-73.[Abstract]

367.  Kerr D, Morton A, Dick I, Prince R. Exercise effects on bone mass in postmenopausal women are site-specific and load-dependent. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:218-25.[Medline]

368.  McCartney N, Hicks AL, Martin J, Webber CE. A longitudinal trial of weight training in the elderly: continued improvements in year 2. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1996;51:B425-33.

369.  Nelson M, Fiatarone M, Morganti C, Trice I, Greenberg R, Evans W. Effects of High-Intensity Strength Training on Multiple Risk Factors for Osteoporotic Fractures - a randomised controlled trial. JAMA 1994;272:1909-14.[Abstract]

370.  Nichols JF, Nelson KP, Peterson KK. Bone mineral density responses to high-intensity strength training in active older women. J Aging Phys Activity 1995;3:26-38.

371.  Revel M, Mayoux-Benhamou MA, Rabourdin JP, Bagheri F, Roux C. One-year psoas training can prevent lumbar bone loss in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Calcif Tissue Int 1993;53:307-11.[Medline]

372.  Rhodes EC, Martin AD, Taunton JE, Donnelly M, Warren J, Elliot J. Effects of one year of resistance training on the relation between muscular strength and bone density in elderly women. Br J Sports Med 2000;34:18-22.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

373.  Sinaki M, Wahner HW, Offord KP, Hodgson SF. Efficacy of nonloading exercises in prevention of vertebral bone loss in postmenopausal women: a controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 1989;64:762-9.[Medline]

374.  Smidt GL, Lin SY, O'Dwyer KD, Blanpied PR. The effect of high-intensity trunk exercise on bone mineral density of postmenopausal women. Spine 1992;17:280-5.[Medline]

375.  Heikkinen J, Kurttila-Matero E, Kyllonen E, Vuori J, Takala T, Vaananen HK. Moderate exercise does not enhance the positive effect of estrogen on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Calcif Tissue Int 1991;49(suppl):S83-4.

376.  Notelovitz M, Martin D, Tesar R, Khan FY, Probart C, Fields C, et al. Estrogen therapy and variable-resistance weight training increase bone mineral in surgically menopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1991;6:583-90.[Medline]

377.  Wolff I, Van Croonenborg JJ, Kemper HCG, Kostense PJ, Twisk JWR. The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: A meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre- and postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:1-12.[Medline]

378.  Berard A, Bravo G, Gauthier P. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of physical activity for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:331-7.[Medline]

379.  Boyce WJ, Vessey MP. Habitual physical inertia and other factors in relation to risk of fracture of the proximal femur. Age Ageing 1988;17:319-27.[Abstract]

380.  Cooper C, Wickham C, Coggon D. Sedentary work in middle life and fracture of the proximal femur. Br J Ind Med 1990;47:69-70.[Medline]

381.  Hannan MT, Felson DT, Dawson-Hughes B, Tucker KL, Cupples LA, Wilson PWF, et al. Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:710-20.[Medline]

382.  Joakimsen RM, Fonnebo V, Magnus JH, Stormer J, Tollan A, Sogaard AJ. The Tromso Study: physical activity and the incidence of fractures in a middle-aged population. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1149-57.[Medline]

383.  Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Kannus P, Sarna S, Koskenvuo M. Physical activity and osteoporotic hip fracture risk in men. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:705-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

384.  Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Cumming R, Lamb SE, Rowe BH. Interventions to reduce the incidence of falling in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1999;(1).

385.  Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Tilyard MW, Buchner DM. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. BMJ 1997;315: 1065-9.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

386.  Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Buchner DM. Psychotropic medication withdrawal and a home-based exercise program to prevent falls: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:850-3.[Medline]

387.  Roberston MC, Devlin N, Gardner MM, Campbell AJ. Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse delivered home exercise program to prevent falls. 1: Randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:697-701.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

388.  Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44:489-97.[Medline]

389.  Cumming RG, Thomas M, Szonyi G, Salkeld G, O'Neill E, Westbury C, et al. Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards: a randomized trial of falls prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:1397-402.[Medline]

390.  Van Haastregt JCM, Diederiks JPM, Van Rossum E, De Witte LP, Crebolder HFJM. Effects of preventive home visits to elderly people living in the community: Systematic review. BMJ 2000;320:754-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

391.  Close J, Ellis M, Hooper R, Glucksman E, Jackson S, Swift C. Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:93-7.[Medline]

392.  Van Haastregt JC, Diederiks JP, van Rossum E, de Witte LP, Voorhoeve PM, Crebolder HF. Effects of a programme of multifactorial home visits on falls and mobility impairments in elderly people at risk: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000;321:994-8.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

393.  Tinetti ME, Baker DI, McAvay G, Claus EB, Garrett P, Gottschalk M, et al. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. N Engl J Med 1994;331:821-7.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

394.  Bailey DA, McKay HA, Mirwald RL, Crocker PRE, Faulkner RA. A six-year longitudinal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual in growing children: The University of Saskatchewan Bone Mineral Accrual Study. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1672-9.[Medline]


 
   
лотерея